Double bouquet cell

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A double bouquet cell (DBC) is an GABAergic interneuron found in several different cortical areas in mammals.

Non-spiny Cortical neurons. Cell C in this figure shows a typical diagram of a DBC with its long bundled horsetail-like axons. webvision.med.utah.edu/VisualCortex.html

Basic information

Double bouquet cells get their name from their bitufted dendritic morphology. They are very numerous in the visual cortex and are believed to exert influence in the vertical dimension. These neurons have sparked particular interest in analyzing cortical circuits. There are a large number of these interneurons that are readily distributed in the cortical regions, but there are variations in morphology and density among different mammals.

Anatomy

The cell body of DBCs are relatively small, oval in shape, and vertically oriented. The axons of DBC are readily recognized due to their unique pattern of long tightly interwoven vertical bundles that resemble a horsetail. The organization of DBCs within the cerebral cortex shows a microcolumnar structure which is present through several layers of the cortex.

Molecular profile

DBCs are GABAergic interneurons that can be recognized using immunocytochemistry staining for calbindin D-28k as well as calretinin. They are also immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). (Please provide a reference for this --Pkatz 22:55, 28 August 2008 (EDT))

Synaptic Connections

DBCs have post synaptic interactions with the shafts of dendrites as well as dendritic spines. These synapses are symmetrical. (I don't understand these statements --Pkatz 22:55, 28 August 2008 (EDT))

Spiking properties

There have been several experiments to determine the spiking patterns of DBCs. They have been classified under several spiking patterns including intermediate spiking, fast spiking, and burst spiking.

References

DeFelipe J, Ballesteros-Yáñez I, Inda MC, Muñoz A. Double-bouquet cells in the monkey and human cerebral cortex with special reference to areas 17 and 18. 2006; Prog Brain Res.154:15-32. PMID: 17010701

DeFelipe J, Hendry SH, Hashikawa T, Molinari M, Jones EG. A microcolumnar structure of monkey cerebral cortex revealed by immunocytochemical studies of double bouquet cell axons. 1990; Neuroscience. 37(3):655-73. PMID: 1701039

del Rio MR, DeFelipe J. Double bouquet cell axons in the human temporal neocortex: relationship to bundles of myelinated axons and colocalization of calretinin and calbindin D-28k immunoreactivities. 1997 Oct; J Chem Neuroanat. 13(4):243-51 PMID: 9412906

Kawaguchi Y, Kubota Y. GABAergic cell subtypes and their synaptic connections in rat frontal cortex. 1997 Sep; Cereb Cortex. 7(6):476-86. PMID: 9276173

Kawaguchi Y, Kubota Y. Physiological and morphological identification of somatostatin- or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing cells among GABAergic cell subtypes in rat frontal cortex. 1996 Apr 15; J Neurosci.16(8):2701-15. PMID: 8786446

Leonid S. Krimer1, Aleksey V. Zaitsev1, Gabriela Czanner2, Sven Kröner3, Guillermo González-Burgos1, Nadezhda V. Povysheva1, Satish Iyengar2, German Barrionuevo3 and David A. Lewis1,3. Cluster Analysis–Based Physiological Classification and Morphological Properties of Inhibitory Neurons in Layers 2–3 of Monkey Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. 2005 Jun 29; J Neurophysiol. 94: 3009-3022.

Peters A, Sethares C. The organization of double bouquet cells in monkey striate cortex. 1997 Dec; J Neurocytol. 26(12):779-97. PMID: 9482155

Yáñez IB, Muñoz A, Contreras J, Gonzalez J, Rodriguez-Veiga E, DeFelipe J. Double bouquet cell in the human cerebral cortex and a comparison with other mammals. 2005 Jun 13; J Comp Neurol. 486(4):344-60 PMID: 15846784

Zhu Y, Stornetta RL, Zhu JJ. Chandelier cells control excessive cortical excitation: characteristics of whisker-evoked synaptic responses of layer 2/3 nonpyramidal and pyramidal neurons. 2004 Jun 2; J Neurosci. 24(22):5101-8. PMID: 15175379