Pedal 5 neuron

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Pedal 5 is a Neuron in Tritonia.

Basic information

TPep immunohistochemistry shows the locations of the DSIs (arrows). Scale bar = 250 um.
  • NeuronBank AccessionID Tri0002495
  • Names and Aliases- Pedal 5, Pd5, RPd5 (Right Pedal 5), LPd5 (Left Pedal 5)
  • Species: Tritonia diomedea
  • Neurotransmitter: TPeps

The bilaterally symmetrical Pedal 5 (Pd5) cells are the largest neuron in each pedal ganglion. The cells produce a group of neuropeptides known as TPeps. They have axons that project ipsilaterally to the foot by way of Pedal Nerve 2 and Pedal Nerve 3. The cells are motor neurons that play an excitatory role in mucociliary crawling. They show an increase in action potential frequency in response to water currents and magnetic field manipulations, both of which are presumed to be orientation cues used by Tritonia.



  • Peptidergic neuron in the pedal ganglia with axons projecting into ipsilateral Pedal Nerve 2 and Pedal Nerve 3.
  • Pd5 is typically the largest neuron in the pedal ganglia. Pedal 6 is slightly smaller and is located posteriorly to Pd5.
  • In the dissection microscope the cell body has a whitish pigmentation.


Putative homologues of Pd5 have been identified in several other nudibranch species, including Tochuina tetraquetra and Triopha catalinae.


  1. Beck JC, Cooper MS, Willows AOD (2000) Immunocytochemical localization of pedal peptide in the central nervous system of the gastropod mollusc Tritonia diomedea. J Comp Neurol 425:1-9.
  2. Cain SD, Wang JH, Lohmann KJ (2006) Immunochemical and electrophysiological analyses of magnetically responsive neurons in the mollusc Tritonia diomedea. J Comp Phys A 192:235-245.
  3. Lloyd PE, Phares GA, Phillips NE, Willows AOD (1996) Purification and sequencing of neuropeptides from identified neurons in the marine mollusc, Tritonia. Peptides 17:17-23.
  4. Lohmann KJ, Willows AOD, Pinter RB (1991) An identifiable molluscan neuron responds to changes in earth-strength magnetic fields. J Exp Biol 161:1-24.
  5. Newcomb JM, Katz PS (2007) Homologues of serotonergic central pattern generator neurons in related nudibranch mollusks with divergent behaviors. J Comp Phys A 193: 425-443.
  6. Popescu IR, Willows AOD (1999) Sources of magnetic sensory input to identified neurons active during crawling in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. J Exp Biol 202:3029-3036.
  7. Popescu IR, Frost WN (2002) Highly dissimilar behaviors mediated by a multifunctional network in the marine mollusk Tritonia diomedea. J Neurosci 22:1985-1993.
  8. Wang JH, Cain SD, Lohmann KJ (2003) Identification of magnetically responsive neurons in the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea. J Exp Biol 206:381-88.
  9. Willows AOD, Dorsett DA, Hoyle G (1973) The neuronal basis of behavior in Tritonia. I. Functional organization of the central nervous system. J Neurobiol 4:207-237.
  10. Willows AOD, Pavlova GA, Phillips NE (1997) Modulation of ciliary beat frequency by neuropeptides from identified molluscan neurons. J Exp Biol 200:1433-1439.