Difference between revisions of "Hermissenda"

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== Nerves ==
 
== Nerves ==
 
*'''<nowiki>P1</nowiki>''' (nerve 1) extends from the posterior pedal ganglion.  It innervates the anterior body wall and foot. Backfills show hundreds of cell bodies distributed over entire pedal ganglion, several cell in ipsilateral pleural ganglion, and a small number of cells in ipsilateral cerebral ganglion and contralateral pedal ganglion (Richards and Farley, 1987).
 
*'''<nowiki>P1</nowiki>''' (nerve 1) extends from the posterior pedal ganglion.  It innervates the anterior body wall and foot. Backfills show hundreds of cell bodies distributed over entire pedal ganglion, several cell in ipsilateral pleural ganglion, and a small number of cells in ipsilateral cerebral ganglion and contralateral pedal ganglion (Richards and Farley, 1987).
*'''<nowiki>P2</nowiki>''' (nerve 2)extends from the lateral pedal ganglion and innervates the anterior portion of the body. Backfills showed clusters of cell bodies particularly on ventral surface of the ipsilateral pedal ganglion ([[MN4]] cells) and ipsilateral pleural ganglion. Also [[MN3]] and MN4 were filled.  Two unidentified neurons and a cluster of 4-5 smaller neurons were filled in the contralateral pleural ganglion (Richards and Farley, 1987).
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*'''<nowiki>P2</nowiki>''' (nerve 2)extends from the lateral pedal ganglion and innervates the anterior portion of the body. Backfills showed clusters of cell bodies particularly on ventral surface of the ipsilateral pedal ganglion ([[MN4]] cells) and ipsilateral pleural ganglion. Also [[MN3]] and [[MN4]] were filled.  Two unidentified neurons and a cluster of 4-5 smaller neurons were filled in the contralateral pleural ganglion (Richards and Farley, 1987).
 
*'''<nowiki>P3</nowiki>''' (nerve 3) extends from the anterior pedal ganglion.
 
*'''<nowiki>P3</nowiki>''' (nerve 3) extends from the anterior pedal ganglion.
 
*'''nerve4''' extends from the posterior pleural ganglion.
 
*'''nerve4''' extends from the posterior pleural ganglion.
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** [[MN2]]
 
** [[MN2]]
 
** [[MN3]]
 
** [[MN3]]
** [[MN4]]
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** MN4
 
** <nowiki>P7</nowiki>
 
** <nowiki>P7</nowiki>
 
** P9
 
** P9
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* [http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Hermissenda Scholarpedia article on Hermissenda]
 
* [http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Hermissenda Scholarpedia article on Hermissenda]
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* Kuzirian AM, Capo T, McPhie D, and Tamse CT. The sea slug, ''Hermissenda crassicornis'': phylogeny, mariculture, and use as a model system for neurobiological research on learning and memory. [http://hermes.mbl.edu/BiologicalBulletin/MMER/KUZ/KuzTit.html Marine Models Electronic Record]
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[[category: Taxa]]
 
[[category: Taxa]]
 
[[Category: Hermissenda]]
 
[[Category: Hermissenda]]

Latest revision as of 15:16, 25 February 2016

Hermissenda crassicornis is a nudibranch mollusc. Farley and Kim Blackwell (2008)


Nervous system organization

Drawing of Hermissenda nervous system from T. P. Jerussi and D. L. Alkon. Ocular and extraocular responses of identifiable neurons in pedal ganglia of Hermissenda crassicornis. J.Neurophysiol. 46 (3):659-671, 1981.

The nervous system of Hermissenda consists of a paired Cerebropleural ganglion (CPG)and a pair of Pedal Ganglia (PG). There is also a Buccal ganglion, not shown in figure.


Nerves

  • P1 (nerve 1) extends from the posterior pedal ganglion. It innervates the anterior body wall and foot. Backfills show hundreds of cell bodies distributed over entire pedal ganglion, several cell in ipsilateral pleural ganglion, and a small number of cells in ipsilateral cerebral ganglion and contralateral pedal ganglion (Richards and Farley, 1987).
  • P2 (nerve 2)extends from the lateral pedal ganglion and innervates the anterior portion of the body. Backfills showed clusters of cell bodies particularly on ventral surface of the ipsilateral pedal ganglion (MN4 cells) and ipsilateral pleural ganglion. Also MN3 and MN4 were filled. Two unidentified neurons and a cluster of 4-5 smaller neurons were filled in the contralateral pleural ganglion (Richards and Farley, 1987).
  • P3 (nerve 3) extends from the anterior pedal ganglion.
  • nerve4 extends from the posterior pleural ganglion.

List of identified neurons in Hermissenda

From: Richards WG, Farley J. Motor correlates of phototaxis and associative learning in Hermissenda crassicornis. Brain Res Bull. 1987 Aug;19(2):175-89. PubMed ID: 3664278
From J.Farley and K. Blackwell (2008), Scholarpedia, 3(7):4090 (http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Hermissenda): Identified Neurons from Sensory to Motor. A - Type A photoreceptor, B - Type B photoreceptor, HC - Hair Cell, SE shows coupled S and E optic ganglion cells. Interconnections between photoreceptors and hair cells are ommitted from this diagram. Lines projecting across midline indicate contralateral projections. Unconnected lines imply monosynaptic connections not yet identified.
from: Crow T, Tian LM (2003) Interneuronal projections to identified cilia-activating pedal neurons in Hermissenda. J Neurophysiol 89:2420.
from:Crow TJ, Tian LM (2009) Polysensory Interneuronal Projections to Foot Contractile Pedal Neurons in Hermissenda. J Neurophysiol. 101(2):824-33 Pubmed ID: 19073803
Dorsal and ventral surface maps of the pedal ganglion showing the locations of neuronal somata of ciliary efferent neurons (orange), tail contractile efferent neurons (yellow), lateral foot contractile efferent neurons (blue), anterior foot contractile efferent neurons (green), and tail extension efferent neurons (purple). The noncolored cells indicated in the drawings are useful landmarks for anatomical identification of efferent neurons. The large noncolor labeled cell in the left pedal ganglia is LP1 (Jerussi and Alkon 1981). From:Crow and Tian LM (2009)

References

See Hermissenda_References for complete list

  • Crow T, Tian LM (2003) Interneuronal projections to identified cilia-activating pedal neurons in Hermissenda. J Neurophysiol 89:2420. Pubmed ID: 12740402
  • Crow TJ, Tian LM (2009) Polysensory Interneuronal Projections to Foot Contractile Pedal Neurons in Hermissenda. J Neurophysiol. 101(2):824-33 Pubmed Pubmed ID: 19073803
  • J.Farley and K. Blackwell (2008), Scholarpedia, 3(7):4090 [1]
  • T. P. Jerussi and D. L. Alkon. Ocular and extraocular responses of identifiable neurons in pedal ganglia of Hermissenda crassicornis. J.Neurophysiol. 46 (3):659-671, 1981 Pubmed ID: 7299440.
  • Richards WG, Farley J. Motor correlates of phototaxis and associative learning in Hermissenda crassicornis. Brain Res Bull. 1987 Aug;19(2):175-89. PubMed ID: 3664278


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