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CC2 is an interneuron in the Aplysia californica cerebral ganglia.

Basic information

CC2 and its neural paths. (Xin 2001)
  • Neurotransmitter: catecholamines

CC2 is in the C cluster of the cerebral ganglion. CC2 is one of the cerebral-abdominal interneurons (CAI) because it has an axon that projects to the abdominal ganglion. CC2 makes monosynaptic connections to one or more abdominal ganglion neurons and thus plays a role in visceral control. It may also play a role in the control of feeding behavior.



  • CC2 is a monopolar neuron that is bilaterally represented. It has an axon in cerebral-pleural connective, which bifurcates. One branch projects to the abdominal ganglion, the other axon branch travels ipsilaterally to the pedal ganglion and then continues via the pedal-pedal commissure to the contralateral pedal ganglion. This destination also appears to be its point of termination.
CC2 recordings of sensory inputs from lips and buccal ganglion. A:touching the lips with a moistened piece of seaweed. B: when CC2 was hyperpolarized. C:an increase in the tonic firing of CC2. D: electrical stimulation of buccal nerve 2. (Xin 2001)


  • CC2 firing produces either excitation or inhibition of abdominal ganglion cells. CC2 produces one-for-one EPSPs in left upper quadrant (LUQ) neurons. Excitation of the L9 gill motor neurons is associated with EPSPs that are not one-for-one with CC2 firing. Given that the excitation lasts longer than CC2 firing, one or more other interneurons are likely to be factors. The presence of excitation to L9 can also be a distinguishing characteristic for CC2, since it appears to be the only CAI to elicit a strong response in L9.


1. Koester J, and Alevizos A. Innervation of the kidney of Aplysia by L10, the LUQ cells, and an identified peripheral motoneuron. J Neurosci 9: 4078-4088, 1989 Abstract

2. Teyke T, Weiss KR, and Kupfermann I. A subpopulation of cerebral B cluster neurones of Aplysia californica is involved in defensive head withdrawal but not appetitive head movements. J Exp Biol 147: 1-20, 1989 Abstract

3. Xin Y, Koester J, Jing J, Weiss KR, and Kupfermann I. (2001) Cerebralabdominal interganglionic coordinating neurons in Aplysia. J Neurophysiol 85: 174–186. Full text (html)