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DD1 is a motorneuron in Caenorhabditis elegans.


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The DD1 (Dorsal D-type motorneuron 1) motorneuron is one of 6 dorsal D-type motorneurons in C. elegans. The Dorsal D-type motorneurons are inhibitory GABAergic motorneurons and together with the Ventral D-type motorneurons make up a cross-inhibitory network that contributes to the C. elegans locomotion.

Neuronal Type: Motor Neuron


  • The DD motorneurons have postysynaptic processes on the ventral nerve cord and presynaptic processes on the dorsal nerve cord.
  • There are 2 classes of inhibitory GABAergic motorneurons in C. elegans: 6 DD motorneurons and 13 VD motorneurons

Molecular profile

Dorsal D-type motorneurons are GABAergic and contribute to a cross-inhibitory network which allows C. elegans to maintain sinuous and symmetrical movement. When an excitatory cholinergic motorneuron activates a muscle group on the ventral nerve cord, a GABAergic motorneuron then inhibits the opposing muscle group on the dorsal nerve cord (and vice versa).


Synaptic Inputs

During ventral muscle contractions, the DD motorneurons receive input from the VA and VB neurons.

Synaptic Outputs

Dorsal neuromuscular junctions are formed to relax the muscle group when it is previously activated by a cholinergic motorneuron.


The two D-type motorneuron classes work together to form the cross-inhibitory network to maintain balanced locomotion within C. elegans.


  1. G. Shan and W. Walthall, 2005. Convergent genetic programs regulate similarities and differences between related motor neuron classes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Developmental Biology 280 494-503.
  2. Dare, J, 2009. Identifying Cofactors and Partners for the Nuclear Receptor UNC-55. Wormclub, Emory University
  3. Wormatlas, 2009. [1]
  4. Wormatlas, 2009. [2]
  5. Wormbase. [3]