Difference between revisions of "Spinal motor neuron"

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== Basic Information ==
From NeuronBankWiki
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Spinal motor neurons (sMNs) are cells in the central nervous system (CNS) (Wada et al., 2009). These neurons can project their axons outside the CNS, and they control muscles directly or indirectly through neuromuscular junctions (Wada et al., 2009).
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This is a template for creating a NeuronBank wiki page for a Neuron. To use this template, log in, go to the edit tab. Copy the entire page. Go to the search button and type in the name of the cell that you wish to create a page for. If that page does not exist, you will be asked if you would like to create it. Click on the link, then paste this page. Delete this instructional paragraph and make the appropriate changes to the text. Please note if the version that you save is a draft version.  
 
  
NeuronName is a neuron in SpeciesName.
 
  
Contents [hide]
 
1 NS neuron
 
2 Anatomy
 
3 Molecular profile
 
4 Physiology
 
4.1 Synaptic Connections
 
4.1.1 Synaptic Inputs
 
4.1.2 Synaptic Outputs
 
4.2 Spiking properties
 
5 Behavior
 
6 References
 
7 Additional information
 
 
[edit]NS neuron
 
You can replace this image with a picture of the cell. To upload a new image, go to Upload file on the left menu. Make sure that you cite where the image was taken from and give attribution. Provide a link to the source when possible.This is where you put a short paragraph to introduce the salient features of this neuron. What should everyone know about this cell if they don't read any farther.
 
  
Neuronal Type: Sensory Neuron, Motor Neuron, local interneuron, projection neuron, etc...
 
  
[edit]Anatomy
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[[File:SMN.jpg|600px|right|Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune.]]
This is where you put information related to the anatomy of the neuron.  
 
  
Where is the Cell body located?
 
What is the axon projection pattern?
 
How many neurons of this type are there in the nervous system?
 
[edit]Molecular profile
 
Neurotransmitter: ____________
 
Unique molecular markers: ______________
 
[edit]Physiology
 
[edit]Synaptic Connections
 
[edit]Synaptic Inputs
 
[edit]Synaptic Outputs
 
[edit]Spiking properties
 
[edit]Behavior
 
[edit]References
 
Author1 FM,Author2 FM (year) Title, Journal, vol: pages. PMID.
 
Author1 FM,Author2 FM (year) Title, Journal, vol: pages. PMID.
 
  
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*  ''' Picture of Spinal motor neuron:''' Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune
  
  
[edit]Additional information
 
link title
 
  
Retrieved from "http://neuronbank.org/wiki/index.php/Template"
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*  '''Neuronal Type:''' Motor Neuron
Category: User contributed neurons
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* '''Species:''' Vertebrates
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* '''Other names:''' motoneuron, motoneurone
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* '''Location:''' Cranial nerve motor nuclei in the brain stem, Spinal cord ventral horn, Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve
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== Anatomy ==
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* 2.1 Alpha Motor Neuron
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This type of neuron is responsible fort the innervations of the extrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).
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* 2.2 Gamma Motor Neuron
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This lower neuron sends the motor innervations to the intrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).
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== Neurotransmitter  == 
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*Acetylcholine
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== Physiology ==
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*Gamma and Alpha motor neurons can be simultaneously activated by commands from the brain (Bear et al. 2006).
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*In a muscle contraction, alpha motor neurons make the extrafusal fibers contract, and the muscle shortens. The Gamma motor neurons innervate the intrafusal muscle fiber at the two ends of the muscle spindle, and it produces a contraction of the two poles of the muscle spindle (Bear et al. 2006).
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== References ==
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*1. Bear, Mark F., Connors, Barry W., Paradiso Michael A. (2006).  Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain.  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 857 pp.
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*2. Institute for Neurological Disorders http://www.indkc.org/images.html 8/29/09
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*3. Wada T, Honda M, Minami I, Tooi N, Amagai Y, et al. (2009) Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived fromHuman and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.000672
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== External Links ==
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*Gamma motor neuron http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_motoneuron
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*Alpha motor neuron http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_motor_neuron
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*Acetylcholine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholine

Latest revision as of 06:20, 31 August 2009

Basic Information

Spinal motor neurons (sMNs) are cells in the central nervous system (CNS) (Wada et al., 2009). These neurons can project their axons outside the CNS, and they control muscles directly or indirectly through neuromuscular junctions (Wada et al., 2009).



Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune.


  • Picture of Spinal motor neuron: Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune


  • Neuronal Type: Motor Neuron
  • Species: Vertebrates
  • Other names: motoneuron, motoneurone
  • Location: Cranial nerve motor nuclei in the brain stem, Spinal cord ventral horn, Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve


Anatomy

  • 2.1 Alpha Motor Neuron

This type of neuron is responsible fort the innervations of the extrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).

  • 2.2 Gamma Motor Neuron

This lower neuron sends the motor innervations to the intrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).


Neurotransmitter

  • Acetylcholine


Physiology

  • Gamma and Alpha motor neurons can be simultaneously activated by commands from the brain (Bear et al. 2006).
  • In a muscle contraction, alpha motor neurons make the extrafusal fibers contract, and the muscle shortens. The Gamma motor neurons innervate the intrafusal muscle fiber at the two ends of the muscle spindle, and it produces a contraction of the two poles of the muscle spindle (Bear et al. 2006).


References

  • 1. Bear, Mark F., Connors, Barry W., Paradiso Michael A. (2006). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 857 pp.
  • 2. Institute for Neurological Disorders http://www.indkc.org/images.html 8/29/09
  • 3. Wada T, Honda M, Minami I, Tooi N, Amagai Y, et al. (2009) Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived fromHuman and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.000672


External Links