Difference between revisions of "Spinal motor neuron"

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== Spinal Motor Neuron==
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== Basic Information ==
 
Spinal motor neurons (sMNs) are cells in the central nervous system (CNS) (Wada et al., 2009). These neurons can project their axons outside the CNS, and they control muscles directly or indirectly through neuromuscular junctions (Wada et al., 2009).
 
Spinal motor neurons (sMNs) are cells in the central nervous system (CNS) (Wada et al., 2009). These neurons can project their axons outside the CNS, and they control muscles directly or indirectly through neuromuscular junctions (Wada et al., 2009).
  
[[http://www.indkc.org/images/image_hiroshi.jpg]]
 
  
Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells.
 
Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune.
 
  
  
'''Neuronal Type:''' Motor Neuron  
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[[File:SMN.jpg|600px|right|Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune.]]
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*  ''' Picture of Spinal motor neuron:''' Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune
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'''Neuronal Type:''' Motor Neuron
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* '''Species:''' Vertebrates
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* '''Other names:''' motoneuron, motoneurone
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* '''Location:''' Cranial nerve motor nuclei in the brain stem, Spinal cord ventral horn, Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve
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== Anatomy ==
 
== Anatomy ==
*Alpha Motor Neuron
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* 2.1 Alpha Motor Neuron
 
This type of neuron is responsible fort the innervations of the extrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).
 
This type of neuron is responsible fort the innervations of the extrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).
*Gamma Motor Neuron
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* 2.2 Gamma Motor Neuron
 
This lower neuron sends the motor innervations to the intrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).
 
This lower neuron sends the motor innervations to the intrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).
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== Neurotransmitter  ==   
 
== Neurotransmitter  ==   
 
*Acetylcholine  
 
*Acetylcholine  
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== Physiology ==
 
== Physiology ==
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*2. Institute for Neurological Disorders http://www.indkc.org/images.html 8/29/09
 
*2. Institute for Neurological Disorders http://www.indkc.org/images.html 8/29/09
 
*3. Wada T, Honda M, Minami I, Tooi N, Amagai Y, et al. (2009) Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived fromHuman and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.000672
 
*3. Wada T, Honda M, Minami I, Tooi N, Amagai Y, et al. (2009) Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived fromHuman and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.000672
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== External Links ==
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*Gamma motor neuron http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_motoneuron
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*Alpha motor neuron http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_motor_neuron
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*Acetylcholine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholine

Latest revision as of 06:20, 31 August 2009

Basic Information

Spinal motor neurons (sMNs) are cells in the central nervous system (CNS) (Wada et al., 2009). These neurons can project their axons outside the CNS, and they control muscles directly or indirectly through neuromuscular junctions (Wada et al., 2009).



Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune.


  • Picture of Spinal motor neuron: Spinal motor neuron making synapse onto skeletal muscle; blue is motor neuron terminal, red is neurotransmitter receptor on the muscle, and green is Schwann cells. Image courtesy of Hiroshi Nishimune


  • Neuronal Type: Motor Neuron
  • Species: Vertebrates
  • Other names: motoneuron, motoneurone
  • Location: Cranial nerve motor nuclei in the brain stem, Spinal cord ventral horn, Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve


Anatomy

  • 2.1 Alpha Motor Neuron

This type of neuron is responsible fort the innervations of the extrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).

  • 2.2 Gamma Motor Neuron

This lower neuron sends the motor innervations to the intrafusal fibers (Bear et al. 2006).


Neurotransmitter

  • Acetylcholine


Physiology

  • Gamma and Alpha motor neurons can be simultaneously activated by commands from the brain (Bear et al. 2006).
  • In a muscle contraction, alpha motor neurons make the extrafusal fibers contract, and the muscle shortens. The Gamma motor neurons innervate the intrafusal muscle fiber at the two ends of the muscle spindle, and it produces a contraction of the two poles of the muscle spindle (Bear et al. 2006).


References

  • 1. Bear, Mark F., Connors, Barry W., Paradiso Michael A. (2006). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 857 pp.
  • 2. Institute for Neurological Disorders http://www.indkc.org/images.html 8/29/09
  • 3. Wada T, Honda M, Minami I, Tooi N, Amagai Y, et al. (2009) Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived fromHuman and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6722. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.000672


External Links